The department, founded by I.I. Zhukov in 1939, is headed by Academician A.I. Rusanov since 1987. It includes 10 Doctors of Sciences (Professors) and 11 Doctors of Philosophy and is a leading department in colloid science. Since 1996 it is a recipient of grants from the program “Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation”, from Russian Foundation for Basic Research, from Ministry of Education including the federal programs “Integration of Science and High Education of Russia for 2002-2006” and “Scientific Research of High School in Top-Priority Directions of Science and Technology”. During the 90ths, there also was an international support from INTAS, ISF, and NSF (USA). The department contains three labs whose scientific activities are characterized below.
The Laboratory of Electrochemistry of Membranes and Disperse Systems based by D.A. Fridrikhsberg in 1987 and now headed by Prof. L.E. Ermakova studies the selectivity, structural and electrosurface characteristics of nanoporous membranes of various chemical natures. Another direction of research is the study of mechanism of formation of surface charge and structure of the electrical double layer at the boundary of a solid (oxide and diamond nanoparticles, oxide nanostructures of various compositions synthesized on oxide substrates) with a solution of a simple or colloidal electrolyte. The kinetic of coagulation of nanosoles in electrolyte solutions is also studied in connection with the development of fundamentals of directional sol-gel synthesis of nanostructured oxide materials based on electrosurface characteristics and aggregative stability source oxide nanosols.
The Laboratory of Surface Phenomena based by A.I. Rusanov in 1967 and headed by Prof. B.A. Noskov since 2006 is engaged in the elaboration of dilation interfacial rheology. Spreading of capillary waves on the surface of surfactant solutions (including micellar systems) and polymer solutions (with or without an insoluble surface film) are studied. A theory of surface viscoelasticity was created for such systems. The relaxation kinetics in the surface layer of a liquid is investigated experimentally by using transversal and longitudinal surface waves. The laboratory is also engaged in the computer simulation of surface layers and microscopic condensed phases with the aid of the Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods. Last investigations on mono- and multi-molecular layers aimed to study the mechanism of chemical reactions between the fatty acid monolayer and cations in an aqueous phase. The wetting of solids by electrolyte solutions is under the study. In parallel, the surfactant adsorption, wetting heats, and contact angles at static and dynamic conditions are carried out to study the interaction of the surfactant solutions with the metal oxide surface.
The Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Surfactants and Nanostrutures was founded by A.I. Rusanov in 1990 and headed by Prof. O.G. Us’yarov since 2001. The main direction of research is related to physicochemical properties of surfactants (static and dynamic surface tension, surface potential, conductivity, foam separation) and polyelectrolyte complexes, the optical properties and chirality of micelles and pre-micellar molecular and ionic aggregates.